How hard can it be to ingest sequential data into a TensorFlow model? As always, the answer is, “It depends.” Where are the sequences in question stored? Can they fit in main memory? Are they of the same length? In what follows, we shall build a flexible and scalable workflow for feeding sequential observations into a TensorFlow graph starting from BigQuery as the data warehouse.

To make the discussion tangible, consider the following problem. Suppose the goal is to predict the peak temperature at an arbitrary weather station present in the Global Historical Climatology Network for each day between June 1 and August 31. More concretely, given observations from June 1 up to an arbitrary day before August 31, the objective is to complete the sequence until August 31. For instance, if we find ourselves in Stockholm on June 12, we ask for the maximum temperatures from June 12 to August 31 given the temperature values between June 1 to June 11 at a weather station in Stockholm.

To set the expectations right, in this article, we are not going to build a predictive model but to cater for its development by making the data from the aforementioned database readily available in a TensorFlow graph. The final chain of states and operations is as follows:

  1. Historical temperature measurements from the Global Historical Climatology Network are stored in a public data set in BigQuery. Each row corresponds to a weather station and a date. There are missing observations due to such reasons as measurements not passing quality checks.

  2. Relevant measurements are grouped in BigQuery by the weather station and year. Therefore, each row corresponds to a weather station and a year, implying that all information about a particular example (a specific weather station on a specific year) is gathered in one place.

  3. The sequences are read, analyzed, and transformed by Cloud Dataflow.

    • The data are split into a training, a validation, and a testing set of examples.

    • The training set is used to compute statistics needed for transforming the measurements to a form suitable for the subsequent modeling. Standardization is used as an example.

    • The training and validation sets are transformed using the statistics computed with respect to the training set in order to avoid performing these computations during the training-with-validation phase. The corresponding transform is available for the testing phase.

  4. The processed training and validation examples and the raw testing examples are written by Dataflow to Cloud Storage in the TFRecord format, which is a format native to TensorFlow.

  5. The files containing TFRecords are read by the API of TensorFlow and eventually transformed into a data set of appropriately padded batches of examples.

The above workflow is not as simple as reading data from a Pandas DataFrame comfortably resting in main memory; however, it is much more scalable. This pipeline can handle arbitrary amounts of data. Moreover, it operates on complete examples, not on individual measurements.

In the rest of the article, the aforementioned steps will be described in more detail. The corresponding source code can be found in the following repository on GitHub:


It all starts with data. The data come from the Global Historical Climatology Network, which is available in BigQuery for public use. Steps 1 and 2 in the list above are covered by the following query:

-- Select relevant measurements
data_1 AS (
    -- Find the date of the previous observation
    LAG(date) OVER (station_year) AS date_last,
    -- Convert to degrees Celsius
    value / 10 AS temperature
    `bigquery-public-data.ghcn_d.ghcnd_stations` USING (id)
    -- Take years from 2010 to 2019
    -- Take months from June to August
    -- Take the maximum temperature
    AND element = 'TMAX'
    -- Take observations passed spatio-temporal quality-control checks
    AND qflag IS NULL
    station_year AS (
      ORDER BY date
-- Group into examples (a specific station and a specific year)
data_2 AS (
    MIN(date) AS date,
    -- Compute gaps between observations
      DATE_DIFF(date, IFNULL(date_last, date), DAY)
      ORDER BY date
    ) AS duration,
    ARRAY_AGG(temperature ORDER BY date) AS temperature
    id, latitude, longitude, EXTRACT(YEAR FROM date)
-- Partition into training, validation, and testing sets
    WHEN EXTRACT(YEAR FROM date) < 2019 THEN 'analysis,training'
    WHEN MOD(ABS(FARM_FINGERPRINT(id)), 100) < 50 THEN 'validation'
    ELSE 'testing'
  END AS mode

The query fetches peak temperatures, denoted by temperature, for all available weather stations between June and August in 2010–2019. The crucial part is the usage of ARRAY_AGG, which is what makes it possible to gather all relevant data about a specific station and a specific year in the same row. The number of days since the previous measurement, which is denoted by duration, is also computed. Ideally, duration should always be one (except for the first day, which has no predecessor); however, this is not the case, which makes the resulting time series vary in length.

In addition, in order to illustrate the generality of this approach, two contextual (that is, non-sequential) explanatory variables are added: latitude and longitude. They are scalars stored side by side with duration and temperature, which are arrays.

Another important moment in the final SELECT statement, which defines a column called mode. This column indicates what each example is used for, allowing one to use the same query for different purposes and to avoid inconsistencies due to multiple queries. In this case, observations prior to 2019 are reserved for training, while the rest is split pseudo-randomly and reproducibly into two approximately equal parts: one is for validation, and one is for testing. This last operation is explained in detail in “Repeatable sampling of data sets in BigQuery for machine learning” by Lak Lakshmanan.


In this section, we cover Steps 4 and 5 in the list given at the beginning. This job is done by TensorFlow Extended, which is a library for building machine-learning pipelines. Internally, it relies on Apache Beam as a language for defining pipelines. Once an adequate pipeline is created, it can be executed using an executor, and the executor that we shall use is Cloud Dataflow.

Before we proceed to the pipeline itself, the construction process is orchestrated by a configuration file, which will be referred to as config in the pipeline code (to be discussed shortly):

  "data": {
    "path": "configs/training/data.sql",
    "schema": [
      { "name": "latitude", "kind": "float32", "transform": "z" },
      { "name": "longitude", "kind": "float32", "transform": "z" },
      { "name": "duration", "kind": ["float32"], "transform": "z" },
      { "name": "temperature", "kind": ["float32"], "transform": "z" }
  "modes": [
    { "name": "analysis" },
    { "name": "training", "transform": "analysis", "shuffle": true },
    { "name": "validation", "transform": "analysis" },
    { "name": "testing", "transform": "identity" }

It is worth noting that this way of working with a separate configuration file is not something standard that comes with TensorFlow or Beam. It is a convenience that we build for ourselves in order to keep the main logic reusable and extendable without touching the code.

The data block describes where the data can be found and provides a schema for the columns that are used. (Recall the SQL query given earlier and note that id, date, and partition are omitted.) For instance, latitude is a scale of type FLOAT32, while temperature is a sequence of type FLOAT32. Both are standardized to have a zero mean and a unit standard deviation, which is indicated by "transform": "z" and is typically needed for training neural networks.

The modes block defines four passes over the data, corresponding to four operating modes. In each mode, a specific subset of examples is considered, which is given by the mode column returned by the query. There are two types of modes: analysis and transform; recall Step 3. Whenever the transform key is present, it is a transform mode; otherwise, it is an analysis mode. In this example, there are one analysis and three transform modes.

Below is an excerpt from a Python class responsible for building the pipeline:

# config = ...
# schema = ...

# Read the SQL code
query = open(config['data']['path']).read()
# Create a BigQuery source
source =, use_standard_sql=True)
# Create metadata needed later
spec = schema.to_feature_spec()
meta = dataset_metadata.DatasetMetadata(
# Read data from BigQuery
data = pipeline \
    | 'read' >>
# Loop over modes whose purpose is analysis
transform_functions = {}
for mode in config['modes']:
    if 'transform' in mode:
    name = mode['name']
    # Select examples that belong to the current mode
    data_ = data \
        | name + '-filter' >> beam.Filter(partial(_filter, mode))
    # Analyze the examples
    transform_functions[name] = (data_, meta) \
        | name + '-analyze' >> tt_beam.AnalyzeDataset(_analyze)
    path = _locate(config, name, 'transform')
    # Store the transform function
    transform_functions[name] \
        | name + '-write-transform' >> transform_fn_io.WriteTransformFn(path)
# Loop over modes whose purpose is transformation
for mode in config['modes']:
    if not 'transform' in mode:
    name = mode['name']
    # Select examples that belong to the current mode
    data_ = data \
        | name + '-filter' >> beam.Filter(partial(_filter, mode))
    # Shuffle examples if needed
    if mode.get('shuffle', False):
        data_ = data_ \
            | name + '-shuffle' >> beam.transforms.Reshuffle()
    # Transform the examples using an appropriate transform function
    if mode['transform'] == 'identity':
        coder = tft.coders.ExampleProtoCoder(meta.schema)
        data_, meta_ = ((data_, meta), transform_functions[mode['transform']]) \
            | name + '-transform' >> tt_beam.TransformDataset()
        coder = tft.coders.ExampleProtoCoder(meta_.schema)
    path = _locate(config, name, 'examples', 'part')
    # Store the transformed examples as TFRecords
    data_ \
        | name + '-encode' >> beam.Map(coder.encode) \
        | name + '-write-examples' >>

At the very beginning, a BigQuery source is created, which is then branched out according to the operating modes found in the configuration file. Specifically, the first for-loop corresponds to the analysis modes, and the second for-loop goes over the transform modes. The former ends with WriteTransformFn, which saves the resulting transform, and the latter ends with WriteToTFRecord, which writes the resulting examples as TFRecords.

The distinction between the contextual and sequential features is given by the schema object created based on the schema block in the configuration file. The call schema.to_feature_spec() shown above alternates between and and produces a feature specification that is understood by TensorFlow and TensorFlow Extended.

The repository provides a wrapper for executing the pipeline on Cloud Dataflow. The following figure shows the flow of the data with respect to the four operating modes:

The outcome is a hierarchy of files on Cloud Storage:

└── data/
    └── training/
        └── 2019-11-01-12-00-00/
            ├── analysis/
            │   └── transform/
            │       ├── transform_fn/...
            │       └── transform_metadata/...
            ├── testing/
            │   └── examples/
            │       ├── part-000000-of-00004
            │       ├── ...
            │       └── part-000003-of-00004
            ├── training/
            │   └── examples/
            │       ├── part-000000-of-00006
            │       ├── ...
            │       └── part-000005-of-00006
            └── validation/
                └── examples/
                    ├── part-000000-of-00004
                    ├── ...
                    └── part-000003-of-00004

Here, data/training contains all data needed for the training phase, which collectively refers to training entwined with validation and followed by testing. Moving forward, this hierarchy is meant to accommodate the application phase as well by populating a data/application entry next to the data/training one. It can also accommodate trained models and the results of applying these models by having a model entry with a structure similar to the one of the data entry.

In the listing above, the files whose name starts with part- are the ones containing TFRecords. It can be seen that, for each mode, the corresponding examples have been split into multiple files, which is done for more efficient access during the usage stage discussed in the next section.


At this point, the data have made it all the way to the execution phase, referring to training, validation, and testing; however, the data are yet to be injected into a TensorFlow graph, which is the topic of this section. As before, relevant parameters are kept in a separate configuration file:

  "data": {
    "schema": [
      { "name": "latitude", "kind": "float32" },
      { "name": "longitude", "kind": "float32" },
      { "name": "duration", "kind": ["float32"] },
      { "name": "temperature", "kind": ["float32"] }
    "modes": {
      "training": {
        "spec": "transformed",
        "shuffle_macro": { "buffer_size": 100 },
        "interleave": { "cycle_length": 100, "num_parallel_calls": -1 },
        "shuffle_micro": { "buffer_size": 512 },
        "map": { "num_parallel_calls": -1 },
        "batch": { "batch_size": 128 },
        "prefetch": { "buffer_size": 1 },
        "repeat": {}
      "validation": {
        "spec": "transformed",
        "shuffle_macro": { "buffer_size": 100 },
        "interleave": { "cycle_length": 100, "num_parallel_calls": -1 },
        "map": { "num_parallel_calls": -1 },
        "batch": { "batch_size": 128 },
        "prefetch": { "buffer_size": 1 },
        "repeat": {}
      "testing": {
        "spec": "original",
        "interleave": { "cycle_length": 100, "num_parallel_calls": -1 },
        "map": { "num_parallel_calls": -1 },
        "batch": { "batch_size": 128 },
        "prefetch": { "buffer_size": 1 }

It can be seen that the file contains only one block: data. This is sufficient for the purposes of this article; however, it is also meant to cover the construction of the model in mind, including its hyperparameters, and the execution process, including the optimizer and evaluation metrics.

The data block is similar to the one we saw before. In this case, modes describes various calls to the API related to shuffling, batching, and so on. Those who are familiar with the API will probably immediately recognize them. It is now instructive to go straight to the Python code.

Below is an excerpt from a Python class responsible for building the pipeline on the TensorFlow side:

# config = ...

# List all files matching a given pattern
pattern = [self.path, name, 'examples', 'part-*']
dataset =*pattern))
# Shuffle the files if needed
if 'shuffle_macro' in config:
    dataset = dataset.shuffle(**config['shuffle_macro'])
# Convert the files into datasets of examples stored as TFRecords and
# amalgamate these datasets into one dataset of examples
dataset = dataset \
    .interleave(, **config['interleave'])
# Shuffle the examples if needed
if 'shuffle_micro' in config:
    dataset = dataset.shuffle(**config['shuffle_micro'])
# Preprocess the examples with respect to a given spec, pad the examples
# and form batches of different sizes, and postprocess the batches
dataset = dataset \
    .map(_preprocess, **config['map']) \
    .padded_batch(padded_shapes=_shape(), **config['batch']) \
    .map(_postprocess, **config['map'])
# Prefetch the batches if needed
if 'prefetch' in config:
    dataset = dataset.prefetch(**config['prefetch'])
# Repeat the data once the source is exhausted if needed
if 'repeat' in config:
    dataset = dataset.repeat(**config['repeat'])

The pipeline is self-explanatory. It is simply a chain of operations stacked on top of each other. It is, however, worth taking a closer look at the preprocessing and postprocessing mappings, which can be seen before and after the padding step, respectively:

def _preprocess(proto):
    spec = self.transforms[config['transform']] \
    example =, spec)
    return (
        {name: example[name] for name in self.contextual_names},
            # Convert the sequential columns from sparse to dense
            name: self.schema[name].to_dense(example[name])
            for name in self.sequential_names

def _postprocess(contextual, sequential):
    sequential = {
        # Convert the sequential columns from dense to sparse
        name: self.schema[name].to_sparse(sequential[name])
        for name in self.sequential_names
    return {**contextual, **sequential}

Currently, does not support padding sparse tensors, which is the representation used for sequential features in TensorFlow. In the running example about forecasting weather, such features are duration and temprature. This is the reason such features are converted to their dense counterparts in _preprocess. However, the final representation has to be sparse still. Therefore, the sequential features are converted back to the sparse format in _postprocess. Hopefully, this back-and-forth conversion will be rendered obsolete in future versions.

Having executed the above steps, we have an instance of, which is the ultimate goal, as it is the standard way of ingesting data into a TensorFlow graph. At this point, one might create a Keras model leveraging tf.keras.layers.DenseFeatures and tf.keras.experimental.SequenceFeatures for constructing the input layer and then pass the data set to the fit function of the model. A skeleton for this part can be found in the repository.


In this article, we have discussed a scalable approach to the ingestion of sequential observations from BigQuery into a TensorFlow graph. The key tools that have been used to this end are TensorFlow Extended in combination with Cloud Dataflow and the API of TensorFlow.

In addition, the provided code has been written to be general and easily customizable. It has been achieved by separating the configuration part from the implementation one.